A circular lined tunnel is constructed in saturated ground. The ground is dewatered during construction. The tunnel is supported by a temporary shotcrete liner, which is installed while the tunnel excavation is advanced. A final cast-in-place concrete liner is then constructed. The water level is then returned to the original level. The analysis determines the forces and moments that develop in the concrete liner when the water level is returned to the original level, and when the temporary shotcrete liner loses strength.
- Saturated soil
- Fluid Flow